Sand & Aggregates
Sand is a loose granular substance, typically pale yellowish brown, resulting from the erosion of siliceous and other rocks and forming a major constituent of beaches, river beds, the seabed, and deserts.

M Sand

Manufactured sand or M Sand is a substitute of river sand for concrete construction. It is produced from hard granite stone by crushing.
The crushed sand is of cubical shape with grounded edges, washed and graded to as a construction material.

Types of M Sand :

  • Concrete Sand: This sand is used for concreting ,Brick , Block & masonary work purpose. The granule thickness varies from 150 microns to 4.75 mm for concrete preprations.

  • Plastering Sand: Plastering M sand is a sand used for Plastering work Only. The granule thicknes varies from 150 microns to 2.35 mm for Plastering preprations.

Coarse Aggregate

Construction aggregate, or aggregate or Coarse aggregates are particles greater than 4.75mm, but generally range between 9.5mm to 37.5mm in diameter.

Based on Size of Aggregate and commonly used aggregates are classified into:

  • 12 mm Aggregate
  • 20mm Aggregate
  • 40mm Aggregate

Difference Between M Sand & River Sand
Parameters M Sand River Sand
Process Manufactured in Factory Naturally Available on river banks
Concrete Strength Higher concrete strength compared to river sand used for concreting. Lesser concrete concrete compared to M Sand
Moisture Content Moisture is available only in water washed M Sand. Moisture is trapped in between the particles which is good for concrete purposes.
Shape Angular and has rougher texture. Angular aggregates demands more water. Water demand can be compensated with cement content. Smoother Texture
Silt Cotent Zero Silt Presence Minimum permissible silt content is 3%. Anything more than 3% is harmful to the concrete durability. We can expect 5 - 20% slit content in medium quality river sand.
OverSized Materials Zero Percentage 1 - 6% of minimum over sized materials can be expected. Like pebble stones.
Eco Friendly Though M Sand uses natural coarse aggregates to form, it causes less damage to environment as compared to river sand. Harmful to environment. Eco imbalances, reduce ground water level and rivers water gets dried up.
Marine Products Zero Percentage 1 - 2%
Price Low Cost (Approximatly 35%) than River Sand High Cost
Adulteration Probability is less High probability of adulteration since filtered sand (a type of pre-washed sand which contains high silt contents) are mixed together. As a rule, supply shortage always brings adulterer products to the market.
Quality Better Quality, Since it is manufactured under controlled environment No Control over Quality , Since it is naturally occuring

Aggregate is a broad category of coarse to medium grained particulate material used in Construction. Aggregates are particles greater than 4.75mm, but generally range between 9.5mm to 37.5mm in diameter.

Aggregates are classified into 2 types based on size

Coarse Aggregate:

When the aggregate is sieved through 4.75mm sieve, the aggregate retained is called coarse aggregate. Medium Gravel, Coarse Gravel , cobble and boulders come under this category.

The maximum aggregate size used may be dependent upon some conditions. In general, 40mm size aggregate used for normal strengths and 20mm size is used for high strength concrete. the size range of various coarse aggregates given below.

Coarse Aggregate Size
Fine gravel 4mm – 8mm
Medium gravel 8mm – 16mm
Coarse gravel 16mm – 64mm
Cobbles 64mm – 256mm
Boulders >256mm

Fine Aggregate:

When the aggregate is sieved through 4.75mm sieve, the aggregate passed through it called as fine aggregate. Natural sand is generally used as fine aggregate, silt and clay are also come under this category. The soft deposit consisting of sand, silt and clay is termed as loam. The purpose of the fine aggregate is to fill the voids in the coarse aggregate and to act as a workability agent.

Fine Aggregate Size
Coarse Sand 2.0mm – 0.5mm
Medium Sand 0.5mm – 0.25mm
Fine Sand 0.25mm – 0.06mm
Silt 0.06mm – 0.002mm
Clay 0.002mm

12 mm Aggregate: Coarse aggregate whose size are approximate 12mm are called 12mm Aggregate
20mm Aggregate: Coarse aggregate whose size varies in the range 10mm to 20 mm
40mm Aggregate: Coarse aggregate whose size varies in the range 20mm to 40 mm